Sweetened beverages include sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks, as well as fruit juice.
This large observational study in 477,199 men and women showed that a high intake of soft drinks was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In contrast, high consumption of juice and nectar were linked to a reduced risk.
Lycopene is an antioxidant carotenoid found in high amounts in tomatoes, guavas and watermelons. Some observational studies suggest that lycopene may reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the evidence is mixed.
This systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies found no significant association of lycopene intake with colorectal cancer.
The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is a measure of the inflammatory potential of a diet. Some foods may be pro-inflammatory, whereas others may be anti-inflammatory or neutral.
This observational study in Korean adults found that the pro-inflammatory potential of a diet was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
Melanoma is more serious than other types of skin cancer. Other types of skin cancer are often referred to as non-melanoma skin cancers and include basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma.
This meta-analysis of observational studies concluded that drinking coffee may protect against BCC, but the effect is moderate. These findings need to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials.
This meta-analysis of observational studies concluded that being overweight or significantly obese increases the risk of developing cancer in the gallbladder and bile duct.
This observational study suggests that eating a lot of marine, omega-3 fatty acids reduces the risk of death among people who have colorectal cancer.
Being underweight or nutrient deficient is associated with worse outcomes for those who have cancer, but not all studies agree.
This meta-analysis of observational studies suggests that being underweight doesn’t negatively affect the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. However, the evidence is weak overall.
This observational study indicates that breastfeeding may protect against cancer. Specifically, children who were breastfed at one point were 64% less likely to develop leukemia or lymphoma.
Additionally, there was a dose-response effect. Children who were breastfed for longer periods were at a reduced risk of leukemia and lymphoma, compared to those who were breastfed for a shorter period.
Prostate cancer is associated with elevated circulating levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). This 3-week trial examined the effects of eating tomato products containing 30 mg of lycopene per day on PSA levels.
The study suggests that eating tomato products decreases PSA levels in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. However, the effect may depend on cancer severity, as well as blood levels of lycopene, selenium and omega-3.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer.
This observational study suggests that poor selenium status may increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, selenium levels were not linked with the risk of cancer in the bile duct.
Glutamine is an amino acid used in protein synthesis. Cells that are rapidly dividing often use glutamine as an energy source.
This study in lung cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy showed that taking 10 grams of glutamine, 3 times a day for over a year, reduced the risk of weight loss and severe esophagitis. It also improved survival outcomes.