Research with NMN Demonstrates Age Reversal in Mice That May Apply to Humans

Life-extension biohacks are on the rise. There have been many stories recently about radical techniques to stop aging such as blood transfusions from young to old animals, genetic tinkering, severe dietary restriction and other extreme methods that show some promise. But most are a long way from being useful for most people.

The exception is this new research, published March 22 in Cell, which identifies the key cellular mechanisms behind vascular aging and the key role it plays on muscle health.

Scientists at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the University of New South Wales used Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN), a substance found in foods and naturally occurs in the body.

These researchers fed 400 mg/kg of NMN per day to 20-month-old mice, an age comparable to 70 years in people. After two months, the mice had increased muscular blood flow, enhanced physical performance and endurance and the old mice became as fit and strong as young mice.


We are as old as our arteries, the adage goes, so could reversing the aging of blood vessels hold the key to restoring youthful vitality?

In this study, the answer appears to be yes, at least in mice.

“We’ve discovered a way to reverse vascular aging by boosting the presence of naturally occurring molecules in the body that augment the physiological response to exercise,” said study senior investigator David Sinclair, Professor in the Department of Genetics and co-Director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging at Harvard Medical School.

As we grow old, we become weak and frail. A constellation of physiological changes—some subtle, some dramatic — precipitate this inevitable decline.

As we age, our tiniest blood vessels wither and die, causing reduced blood flow and compromises oxygenation of organs and tissues. Vascular aging is responsible for a myriad of disorders, such as cardiac and neurological conditions, muscle loss, impaired wound healing and overall frailty.

Scientists have known that loss of blood flow to organs and tissues leads to the build-up of toxins and low oxygen levels. Endothelial cells — which line blood vessels — are essential for the growth of new blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich and nutrient-loaded blood to organs and tissues.

But as these endothelial cells age, blood vessels atrophy, new blood vessels fail to form and blood flow to most parts of the body gradually diminishes. This dynamic is particularly striking in skeletal muscle, which is highly vascularized and depends on a robust blood supply to function.


Muscles begin to shrivel and grow weaker with age, a condition known as sarcopenia. The process can be slowed down with regular exercise, but even exercise becomes ineffective.

Sinclair and team wondered: What precisely curtails blood flow and precipitates this unavoidable decline? Why does even exercise lose its protective power to sustain muscle vitality? Is this process reversible?

In a series of experiments, the team found that reduced blood flow develops as endothelial cells start to lose a critical protein known as sirtuin1, or SIRT1. Supplementation with NMN boosts NAD+, stimulates SIRT1 and restores growth of endothelial cells.


After two months of receiving NMN, new blood vessels sprouted within the skeletal muscles of old mice. Capillary density increased and matched the capillary growth of young mice.

Remarkably, blood flow increased and the animals’ endurance (measured by how long they could run on a treadmill before before exhausting) was 56%-80% greater than that of untreated old mice: 1,400 feet compared to 780 feet.

Treated mice received the benefits of exercise just as mice half their age. In young animals, exercise spurs the creation of new blood vessels (neovascularization) and boosts muscle mass, which declines with age in both people and mice.

  • NMN restored the vascular system of old mice to that of young mice
  • Mice treated with NMN had a 1.6-fold increase in time and distance runs compared to untreated mice
  • In young, sedentary animals, NMN did not alter the capillarity or exercise capacity
  • In young animals, NMN + exercise resulted in 70% more capillaries than untreated, sedentary mice

NMN restored the blood-vessel- and muscle-boosting effects of a good treadmill run, basically “reversing vascular aging in the mice,” said study co-leader, David Sinclair of Harvard Medical School.

With exercise, the effect is even more dramatic: 32-month-old mice (equivalent to a 90-year-old human) were able to run on average TWICE as far as untreated mice.

The benefits of exercise diminish with time as decreased blood flow and muscle deterioration prevents adequate recovery. It is truly amazing that elderly animals were able to make such dramatic physiological improvements.


NMN is found in certain foods and effectively stimulates NAD+ metabolism, a coenzyme the mitochondria depend on to fuel all basic functions within cells. (3,4)

One function of NAD+ is to facilitate communication between the cell nucleus and the mitochondria that power all activity in our cells. (5,6,7)

In previous studies, scientists confirmed a direct link between falling NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and in human subjects and are learning that NAD+ precursors — NMN and NR — can restore NAD+ levels to prevent and even reverse aspects of aging.


This is not the first time NMN made headlines in anti-aging circles. The lead author for this study, Dr. David Sinclair, published research in 2013 that demonstrating:


Raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function and homeostasis to that of young mice

Key biochemical markers of muscle health in 22-month-old mice returned to levels similar to 6-month-old mice


The 2013 study prompted more research on the benefits and safety of NMN, including this 2016 study, in which mice were treated with NMN for 12 months. The results showed:

NMN was able to mitigate most age-associated physiological decline in mice

Treatment of old mice with NMN reversed all of the biochemical aspects of aging

In a paper published in Science in 2017, Dr. Sinclair identified that the metabolite NAD+, which is naturally present in every cell of our body, has a key role as a regulator in protein-to-protein interactions that control DNA repair. Treating old mice with NMN improved their cells’ ability to repair DNA.


The potential of NMN has been known for over 5 years now, but this most recent study stands out because it:

  1. Shows NEW growth (Angiogenesis) of blood vessels in OLD animals, which is very different than improvement in some metabolic markers that may be temporary.
  2. Is the first time we have seen such a significant improvement in physical performance that actually allowed very old animals to perform as they did when young.
  3. Renewed capillary growth and increased blood flow “reversed vascular aging” and may help reverse heart and neurological problems in addition to sarcopenia.

Remember, as we age, our arteries harden and atrophy resulting in decreased endurance and muscle loss.

Here, the process was not just halted, but REVERSED, with new growth. The number and density of capillaries was the same as in young animals. This is not a temporary phenomenon that might disappear as the body adjusts and homeostasis kicks in.

According to Dr. Sinclair, the same mechanism could also spur the creation of blood vessels in the brain, where “the lack of oxygen and buildup of waste products” (resulting from capillary loss) “sets off a downward spiral of disease and disability,” such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. This may be why studies with NMN and NR have proven effective in early studies of such neurological diseases.

Sinclair and his team are now studying whether increasing NAD+ levels will also spur the creation of blood vessels in the brain.

“Anything that contributes to muscle health through vascular health is likely to be quite important,” said the Buck Institute’s Verdin, who takes a daily NAD+ precursor.

There is great interest in anything that can improve angiogenesis and treat heart disease. Pharmaceutical companies have spent BILLIONS over the last 10 years testing various products. So far, all have failed. It’s interesting that the FDA insists any such medication must improve exercise performance in patients. It’s easy to see why Dr. Sinclair has plans for gaining approval for NMN as a pharmaceutical drug.


Both NMN and NR boost NAD+ and have overlapping effects in studies. At least four clinical studies with humans given NMN supplements are ongoing or completed but not yet published. There have been three human studies published with NR that show results in humans that are similar to experiments in mice (r,r,r).

A study conducted by Elysium Health in 2017 using their product, Basis (NR + Pterostilbene), found improvements in mobility. 120 individuals aged 60-80 were given 250 mg or 500 mg of Basis daily for eight weeks. Those receiving the larger dose experienced:  “7.8% improvement in chair stand and 7.5% improvement in distance walked.”

I wrote at the time that it is nice, but not overwhelming, especially since we don’t know if this increased mobility is at a plateau or may improve. Now, with these results from Dr. Sinclair’s latest research in mice over two months old, we see increased endurance on a much larger scale.

However, the improved capillary growth and blood flow behind the increased endurance would not occur quickly. Two months is a long time to a mouse that live around three years.

As humans live 30-40 times longer than mice, two months in mice time is like six years or so in humans.

If the improved endurance already found in human studies is due to the same increase in NAD+, Sirt1 and capillary growth, it would seem likely to continue and over six years might be similar to that of the 2-month experiment with mice.

We are awaiting results that show NMN works the same in humans, but we do have research that makes it plausible NMN could restore blood flow and physical performance as it does with mice.

Completed or in process human studies with NMN:


Neovascularization—the formation of new blood vessels—should be treated with caution, the researchers say, because increased blood supply could inadvertently fuel tumor growth.

“The last thing you want to do is provide extra blood and nourishment to a tumor if you already have one,” said study co-author Lindsay Wu, at the University of New South Wales School of Medical Sciences.

Sinclair and Wu point out that experiments done provide no evidence treatment with NMN stimulated tumor development in animals treated with the compound.


We do not believe the best answer is large dosages of oral supplements (capsules), but rather taking Sublingual NMN, as it is a more direct route to the blood and avoids the “first pass” metabolism (stomach, intestines, liver) that degrade a very large percentage of NMN and NR supplements.

From studies on sublingual absorption rates on other molecules, we are convinced sublingual NMN is much more effective, but it is difficult to assign a percentage to how much more.

There is no data on how much more effective NMN is in sublingual form. It’s also difficult to study sublingual absorption with mice as they don’t cooperate when trying to put substances under their tongue. 🙂

Our friends and customers do report MUCH better results from taking our NMN powder under the tongue.

We are confident humans will benefit from a more effective delivery method such as sublingual to increase bioavailability and experience the same benefits the mice did in this study at a more affordable dosage of 500-1000 mg per day. We are in contact with dozens of people that are using 1,000 mg per day sublingual.


This study used 400 mg/kg a day, which equates to more than two GRAMS a day for a 70 kg human!

It is a little higher than most other studies with mice that use 100-300 mg/kg per day.

We don’t know if a smaller dose would be as effective as this large dose, so it’s possible that one gram a day in humans may also reverse aging in blood vessels and prompt new growth such as this study, but even one gram is a lot more than most people are taking.

The most recently published study of NR in humans by the University of Colorado Boulder found two dosages  of 500 mg to be safe. They also found wide variation in the effect on NAD+ levels between individuals as shown in the chart at right.

So clearly, its impossible to recommend the exact dose needed for everyone. We base our recommendations on the sum total of all the research to date on NR and NMN, and take into consideration the anecdotal evidence we have from talking to hundreds of our users.

We believe Sublingual delivery is much more effective, so a smaller dose will provide the same benefit of a much larger dose of oral capsules.

With oral supplements (capsules) 1,000 mg  is the most common estimate of the maximum amount that is useful, after which any additional precursor is excreted as NAM in the urine.

What we recommend:

  • Capsules: 500 – 1000 mg per day
  • Sublingual: 250 – 2,000 mg per day


We believe 1,000 mg sublingual will be MUCH more effective at reaching tissues throughout the body as opposed to capsules.

However, we don’t believe the same upper limit of 1,000 Mg applies to sublingual NMN, as it is not subject to the GI tract and first pass metabolism in the liver, so doesn’t end up as “expensive urine”

We hear reports from people using higher dosages of 1,500 to 2,000 Mg per day with phenomenal results.

Of course the cost is prohibitive for most people.  We just mention it so people are aware of the potential. If you can afford it, we believe you don’t bump into the same ceiling on maximum effective dosage with Sublingual administration.


Research studies provide great proof, but we also learn A LOT from chatting with customers.

Many users report increased performance in the gym, but we were surprised to hear that competitive runners and bodybuilders taking very large dosages (1,000 mg or more), before, during or just after training, felt it was much more effective.

We were skeptical ourselves, and didn’t actually try larger dosages until the last 45 days or so, when some of us started taking 375-500 mg SUBLINGUAL, just before exercise.

This is anecdotal evidence, but all reported  such a significant effect that we now recommend taking NMN just before and after exercise.



  • 50% of your daily dosage immediately before exercise
  • 50% of your daily dosage immediately after exercise


  • 50% of you daily dosage one hour before exercise
  • 50% of your daily dosage immediately after exercise

Ideally, take on days you will exercise, or likely to be more active. If you walking is the most exercise you are capable of, thats fine – just take NMN before and after.

We recommend taking NMN 5 days a week, with 2 days off.


According to Dr Wu:
“If these findings translate from mouse to human, we could have a revolutionary impact on the quality of life of older people, and not to mention the benefits of avoiding diseases of aging.”

“This new study adds to the body of work showing that the restoration of NAD+ in mammals can delay and reverse many of the effects of aging.”

Even Dr. Sinclair takes NMN to boost NAD+ levels. “In someone my age [49], it’s probably harder to see immediate benefits,” he said, though he said he feels sharper and younger from it. After his 78-year-old father began taking NMN, “he started climbing mountains and going whitewater rafting and looking forward to the next five years.”

There have been numerous studies documenting improvements from NMN and NR for a wide range of age-related issues, but this is the FIRST evidence that shows actual NEW GROWTH in OLD ANIMALS. NMN enabled them to perform as they did when young.

We are excited about the massive benefits this could bring to hundreds of millions of people. NMN is available now in capsules, and in powder form, which is perfect for what we believe is the more effective sublingual delivery method.


3 thoughts on “Research with NMN Demonstrates Age Reversal in Mice That May Apply to Humans

  1. James says:

    Suggestion is that the selection criteria for study participant include persons with muscle damage as a result of statin use. There are many internet resources to be found with hundreds if not thousands of very well documented anecdotal case studies by the statin users themselves who are searching for answers to the apparent destruction of their bodys’ ability to maintain normal muscle function due to loss of mitochondrial regeneration.
    I am a lay person and my word may not make perfect sense, I am hoping someone will just have a look at the conditions that have been reported and associated with the use of statin drugs. Hopefully someone will perceive that the big pharma folks are angling to have statins pushed into our lives by way of “start the children before they have a cholesterol problem” !

  2. Colin Lacey says:

    In the interest of publishing scientific fact rather just more hype – the section on dosage states that 400mg/Kg would be more than TWO grams per day for a 70Kg person – when it would actually be 28 grams per day. Unless you intend to mislead, could you change the wording to approximate something closer to the truth.

  3. Steve Campo says:

    Fascinating and exceptionally well written article. Please keep me abreast of all new research and emerging information concerning NMN.

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