Metabolic Effects of Monounsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Diets Compared With Carbohydrate or Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Diets in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
This meta-analysis of observational studies concluded that eating diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids may improve risk factors for metabolic disorders among people with type 2 diabetes.
Some obese people do not have any signs of metabolic disorders, even though they may have a large waist circumference. This type of obesity is sometimes called metabolically healthy obesity (MHO).
This prospective observational study showed that people who were MHO in the beginning were at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on, regardless of whether they had a fatty liver.
Frequent Consumption of Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Natural and Bottled Fruit Juices Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Disease Risk.
This observational study suggests that drinking more than five servings of sugar-sweetened beverages or bottled fruit juices per week is linked to an increased risk of metabolic syndrome.
Previous studies suggest that elevated circulating levels of calcium are associated with metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes.
This observational study in 12,800 adults supports previous findings, showing that high calcium levels were linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
This observational study in Australian children and adolescents showed that those who had low circulating zinc levels were at a greater risk of elevated insulin (at 15 years old) and blood sugar (at 8 years old).
This review discussed the effectiveness of green tea and green tea antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin gallate, at treating type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders.
The authors concluded that although green tea could potentially treat type 2 diabetes and obesity, further studies are needed before any strong claims can be made.
Isoflavones are a class of polyphenol antioxidants found in soybeans. This randomized controlled trial in 70 women with polycystic ovary syndrome examined the health effects of supplementing with 50 mg of isoflavones per day for 3 months.
The study showed that supplementing with isoflavones improved markers of insulin resistance and oxidative stress. It also improved the blood lipid profile (triglyceride levels) and hormonal status.
This randomized controlled trial in overweight, elderly people (69% with prediabetes) showed that supplementing with 600 or 3,750 IU of vitamin D per day did not improve insulin resistance.
This randomized controlled trial in healthy Japanese adults showed that supplementing with 420 IU of vitamin D per day for one year significantly reduced fasting blood sugar levels and insulin resistance.
Previous observational studies indicate that high meat consumption may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D).
This observational study supports earlier evidence. It showed that meat consumption, especially processed meat, was associated with an increased risk of developing T2D.
This randomized controlled trial in women with diabetes during pregnancy examined the health effects of supplementing with a multispecies probiotic mixture for 8 weeks.
Taking probiotics led to a significant decrease in several inflammatory markers. Additionally, insulin levels and insulin sensitivity was improved in the probiotic group, compared to the placebo.
High amounts of fiber or polyphenol antioxidants generally improve blood sugar control after a meal. They partly work by inhibiting digestive enzymes and slowing the absorption of sugar/carbs.
This randomized controlled trial supports previous studies showing that adding fiber and polyphenols to starch significantly lowered post-meal rises in blood sugar and insulin.
Isoflavonoids, or isoflavones, are plant compounds found in legumes, especially soybeans.
This observational study found that dietary intake of isoflavones was linked to a slightly lower risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women who generally ate low or moderate amounts of soy foods.
This was a randomized controlled trial in people with metabolic syndrome on a 24-week, high-intensity exercise program.
The study showed that drinking skim milk enriched with 275 mg of omega-3 fat and 7.5 grams of oleate improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation (CRP levels) and increased HDL-cholesterol levels, compared to a placebo.
Curcumin is the main active ingredient in turmeric, a popular Indian spice. Supplementing with curcumin may have various health benefits. However, research on the effects of curcumin on insulin resistance has provided inconclusive results.
Different doses, treatment times and types of curcumin supplements may affect study results. This review discussed the available evidence and how to improve the potential benefits of curcumin on blood sugar control.
This observational study in women from the Nurses’ Health Study indicates that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. This especially applied to whole, unprocessed plant foods.
This was a 16-week, randomized controlled trial in women with diabetes during pregnancy. It showed that eating yogurt enriched with vitamin D3 significantly improved insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles, compared to plain yogurt.