This observational study found that eating a variety of healthy foods promotes sustained weight loss in overweight or obese individuals on a weight loss program.
This observational study in women who were 26–28 weeks pregnant found that a higher protein intake relative to carbs was associated with less intra-abdominal fat in the child.
This observational study in Australian children showed that those who regularly consumed breakfast were less likely to be overweight. However, eating breakfast was not significantly linked to mean body mass index.
Eating breakfast was also associated with a higher intake of many nutrients, especially among those who consumed cereal for breakfast. Cereal consumers had higher intakes of fiber, calcium, iron and folate, but also carbs and sugar.
This randomized controlled trial in overweight, elderly people (69% with prediabetes) showed that supplementing with 600 or 3,750 IU of vitamin D per day did not improve insulin resistance.
This randomized controlled trial in healthy Japanese adults showed that supplementing with 420 IU of vitamin D per day for one year significantly reduced fasting blood sugar levels and insulin resistance.
This meta-analysis examined the association of sleep quality with overweight or obesity in young people. It concluded that poor sleep quality may increase the risk of weight gain and obesity, irrespective of sleep duration.
This observational study suggests that poor diet quality during pregnancy increases the risk of excessive fat mass (adiposity) in newborns.
This association was independent of the mother’s total calorie intake or body mass index before pregnancy.
This observational study in 12-month-old infants showed that frequent nighttime feeding was linked to increased fat gain and risk of overweight in early childhood.
This observational study showed that eating pasta as a component of the Meditarrenean diet was associated with reduced body mass index, waist circumference and a lower risk of obesity.
Eating is associated with a temporary increase in calorie expenditure, which is known as the thermic effect of food (TEF). Protein causes a higher TEF, compared to carbs or fat.
This study showed that the effects of protein on TEF did not change following a low (5%), normal (15%) or high-protein (25%) diet for 56 days.
This observational study in formula-fed infants suggests that a large bottle size may increase their risk of gaining excessive weight, compared to a smaller bottle size.
Previous observational studies suggest that following the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) reduces the risk of weight gain and promotes weight loss.
This observational study supports previous findings. It showed that adhering to the MDP was associated with lower weight gain.
This prospective observational study found that a high liking for fat is linked to a greater risk of obesity, whereas a high liking for sweet taste was linked to a decreased risk. In contrast, salt liking was not significantly linked to obesity.
This observational study suggests that higher protein intakes during pregnancy are linked to greater lean mass in the children when they are 6 years old.
In contrast, protein intakes during pregnancy were not significantly associated with fat mass in the child.
Previous observational studies show that when mothers gain a lot weight during pregnancy their child is at a higher risk of becoming obese.
This observational study supports earlier studies indicating that excessive fat gain during pregnancy may promote weight gain and obesity in early, middle and late childhood.
This observational study suggests that high maternal weight gain during early and mid-pregnancy may increase the risk of excessive weight gain in mid-childhood.
Pregnant women answered the Food Craving Inventory, a questionnaire that quantifies the frequency of cravings and how often people give in to them.
The findings indicate that cravings and eating a lot of craved foods, mainly sugar and fast food, increases the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy.
This mouse study showed that cold exposure (4 weeks at 54°F or 12°C) was associated with changes in the gut microbiota.
When bacteria-free mice on a high-fat diet were transplanted with bacteria from cold-exposed mice, they gained less weight and had better blood sugar control than mice who got bacteria from mice housed at 84°F (29°C).