Videos

– Some Amazing Results with NMN –

“After 6 days of NMN, 22 month old mice  had the muscle capacity, endurance and metabolism of 6 month old  mice” (2013 Sinclair)

“NMN effectively mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice ” (2016 Sinclair)

“NAD+ and SIRT1 levels were HIGHER in OLD Mice than in YOUNG Mice that did not receive NMN.” (2017 Hao)

“The old mice became as fit and strong as young mice”(2018 Sinclair)

Supplements to restore NAD+

Restoring NAD+ levels show promise for fighting all age related disease

Restoring NAD+ levels has been shown in research with mice to be effective at combatting nearly all age related disease such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimers, heart disease diabetes, cancer, and more.

Does it work as well in humans as it does in mice?

Researchers are hopeful that the same results will apply to humans, but 2 months in mice is equivalent to several years in humans. The longer lifespan and understandable caution in research with humans means it will be years, if not decades, before it is proven.

One area where it has shown great effect in mice is reversing Sarcopenia (muscle wasting), in older subjects. Dr Sinclair’s most recent research gave NMN to old mice for 2 months and found their strength and endurance nearly doubled (r). Examination of their muscles showed they were indistinguishable from those of young mice. They also grew new blood vessels and vastly increased capillary density.

Improved endurance and muscle growth points to YES

Using our protocol of frequent doses of NMN taken sublingually, we have seen the same restoration of muscle strength and endurance as the mice in Dr Sinclair’s research, in a very short time. My personal experience has been a return to the strength and fitness of my 20’s in just 3 months.

Sublingual Delivery is the breakthrough

For human usage, NAD+ boosters such as Niagen and NMN have been available for purchase as a dietary supplement for a few years now.

However, recent studies have shown that oral supplements of NAD+ boosters are digested in the stomach and liver, with very little reaching the bloodstream (r).

Sublingual delivery can bypass the digestive system and deliver NAD+ or NMN directly to the bloodstream.

Alivebynature has been the dominant seller of NMN over the last year. From speaking with customers we have discovered that multiple sublingual dosages throughout the day dramatically increases the effectiveness.

More about Sublingual delivery

THE PROBLEM with CAPSULES – DIGESTED TO NAM

This research published in 2018 confirms that most oral supplements of NMN and NR are digested to NAM in the GI tract or the liver.

At 50Mg/Kg of body weight,  NO NR or NMN made it out of the liver intact.

Future pharmacological and nutraceutical efforts to boost NAD will need to take into account the minimal oral bioavailability of NR and NMN (R)

Unlike in cell culture where NR and NMN are readily incorporated into NAD, oral administration fails to deliver NR or NMN to tissues (R)

Interestingly, we found that neither compound was able to enter the circulation intact in substantial quantities when delivered orally (R)

There is a lot of research and debate about which molecules most easily enter different types of cells.

That question is totally irrelevant if a molecule NEVER REACHES THE BLOODSTREAM.

This study used a small dose – 50 Mg/Kg of bodyweight (equivalent to 250 Mg for a 70 kg human), vs the 300-400 Mg/Kg commonly tested in other research. Perhaps higher dosages allow NAD+ precursors to make it past the Liver to other tissues.

It is clear that for Oral Supplements (Capsules), the bioavailability of any NAD+ precursor is very poor outside of the Liver.

SUBLINGUAL DELIVERY BYPASSES THE STOMACH AND LIVER

Sublingual (under the tongue) delivery can provide rapid absorption via the blood vessels under the tongue rather than via the digestive tract. (r,r,r)

The absorption of the different molecules delivered through the sublingual route can be 3 to 10 times greater than oral route and is only surpassed by direct IV injection (r).

SUBLINGUAL CAN BE MORE BIOAVAILABLE THAN IP INJECTION !

With intraperitoneal injection, the primary route of absorption is via the mesenteric vessels, which drain into the portal vein and pass through the liver before reaching the bloodstream.

This means, IP avoids the GI tract, but is still sent directly to the Liver, where much of it is converted to NAD+. Elevated NAD+ in the liver is good, but its far better to reach the bloodstream with intact NMN.

Sublingual delivery is not filtered by the Liver and can reach systemic circulation intact, so can actually result in greater bioavailability that direct injection! Some examples are:

  • A sublingual formulation of zol… exhibited a faster rate of absorption and higher drug exposure as compared to subcutaneous injection (r)
  • sublingually administered epin… results in more rapid absorption and a higher peak plasma concentration compared to injected epin… .(r)
  • 40mg of sublingually administered pir.. was found to be as effective as a 75 mg intramuscular injection of dicl… (r)

NAD+ METABOLISM IN HUMANS

NAD+ can be synthesized in humans from several different molecules (precursors), thru  the De Novo  and Salvage Pathways.

The salvage pathway sustains 85% or more of our NAD+ (14), with approximately 3g of NAM metabolized to NMN and then to NAD 2-4 times per day (14).

Nampt is the rate-limiting step in the salvage process (97).

As we age, Nampt enzyme activity is lower, resulting in less NAM recycling, less NAD+, more disease and aging (97,101).

SUBLINGUAL NMN AND NAD+ BYPASSES THE NAMPT BOTTLENECK

Restoring NAD+ in the Liver does not solve NAD+ deficiency throughout the body.

In the Liver, the CD38 enzyme metabolizes NAD+ to NAM, which is excreted to the rest of the body (r).

Sublingual delivery of NMN or NAD+ directly to the bloodstream bypasses the liver and the Nampt bottleneck that is the root cause of NAD+ deficiency in many tissues.

NAD+ SUPPLEMENTATION

Does NAD+ enter cells directly?

 

NAD+ DOES CROSS THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER AND ENTERS CELLS INTACT

 

There are claims that both NMN and NAD+ are “TOO LARGE”, and cannot enter cells directly, but must first be broken down to NR.

We recently wrote this article refuting that theory.

On September 1 2018, more proof was published proving that NAD+ crosses the blood brain barrier, enters the hypothalamus INTACT, and raises NAD+ levels.

Even better, just 1 Mg/kg a day decreased hunger, increased energy expenditure and fat burning for up to 24 hours after dosage.

For reference, most research providing mice with NMN or NR in drinking water uses 300 to 400 Mg/kg a day.

This study found both IV and IP injections had similar results. The results with 1-3 Mg/Kg by IP is extremely promising, as we note that sublingual delivery can be even more effective than IP delivery.

Restores NAD+ in brain, Increases Metabolism

Once in the bloodstream NAD+ was thought to be too large to cross the cell membrane, making it ineffective at restoring the NAD+ contents inside the cells of many tissues. In this article we show that is not true for heart and brain, and perhaps other tissues.

In fact, this research published in March 2018 shows NAD+ is able to cross the blood brain barrier and quickly increases levels of NAD+ in the hypothalamus, while NR and NMN do not.

Administration of 1 mg/kg of NAD+ reduced hunger and weight gain, and increases energy expenditure and fat burning in mice (r).

Elevating NAD+ levels the hypothalamus has great impact throughout the body, as it regulates hunger and energy expenditure.

Restoring NAD+ levels in the hypothalamus to those of a young animal is very likely to have a positive impact on organs and tissues throughout the body.

(more about the importance of hypothalamus as master regulator of metabolism below)

Even more tantalizing are the possible implications for aging itself.
That the hypothalamus as master aging clock, is a credible theory on aging.

Hypothalamus controls energy metabolism

Hypothalamic circuits regulating appetite and energy homeostasis:  pathways to obesity

The hypothalamus in particular has emerged as an integrating, superordinate master regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis.

In summary, the hypothalamus plays a key role in the regulation of appetite and food intake both in humans and rodents.

Hypothalamic inflammation impairs the effects of insulin and leptin, contributing not only to hyperphagia and obesity development but also to the associated dysregulation of glucose homeostasis.

Brain regulation of appetite and satiety

Energy homeostasis is controlled mainly by neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and brainstem.

Brain Regulation of Energy Metabolism (Roh, 2016)

The hypothalamus is the region of the brain that controls food intake and body weight.

Leptin and insulin signal the status of body energy stores to the hypothalamus.

Hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis (Sainsbury, 2002)

These peripheral hormones influence their effects on energy homeostasis either by activating or inhibiting the activity of the orexigenic or anorexic peptides within the hypothalamus.

Research and Benefits of NAD+ Supplementation

NMN and NAD+ enter tissues directly

Exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide regulates energy metabolism via hypothalamic Connexin 43 (Roh, 2018)

In conclusion, our results demonstrate that exogenous NAD is effectively imported into the hypothalamus and increases hypothalamic NAD content. Therefore, NAD supplement can constitute a therapeutic method for metabolic disorders characterized by hypothalamic NAD depletion in humans.

In this study published in September 2018, administration of LABELED NAD+ by IP and IV injection demonstrated that exogenous NAD+ crosses the blood brain barrier to enter the hypothalamus INTACT, reduces hunger and weight gain, and increases energy expenditure and fat burning in mice.

This study also shows that NR and NMN can not utilize the cd43 gap to cross the blood brain barrier!

This might explain why NAD+ clinics have found success treating addictions and other brain imbalances, but NR and NMN have not been used in similar fashion.

Exogenous NAD Blocks Cardiac Hypertrophic Response via Activation of the SIRT3-LKB1-AMP-activated Kinase Pathway (Pillai, 2009)

Bruzzone et al. (21) have shown that connexin 43 (Cx43) channels are permeable to extracellular NAD

Pharmacological effects of exogenous NAD on mitochondrial bioenergetics, DNA repair, and apoptosis.

“Taken together, our findings strengthen the hypothesis that eNAD crosses the plasma membrane intact”

“In the present study we report that exposure to eNAD substantially increases the dinucleotide cellular pool, suggesting plasma membrane permeability”

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is transported into mammalian mitochondria (Baur, 2018)

Here we present evidence that mitochondria directly import NAD

Taken together, our experiments confirm that despite the lack of any recognized transporter, mammalian mitochondria, like their yeast and plant counterparts, are capable of importing NAD

at least two studies have previously reported evidence for uptake of NAD, leading the authors to propose that intact NAD crosses the plasma membrane and subsequently enters the mitochondria directly

This observation suggests that a mitochondrial transporter for NMN may also await discovery

In summary, we show that mammalian mitochondria are capable of directly importing NAD (or NADH). This finding strongly suggests the existence of an undiscovered transporter in mammalian mitochondria

Detection and pharmacological modulation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in vitro and in vivo (Fermenting, 2009)

evidence that intracellular NMN contents promptly increase when the nucleotide is added to the culture media indicates that plasma membrane is permeable to this nucleotide

Pharmacological Effects of Exogenous NAD on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics, DNA Repair and Apoptosis

Although the canonical view considers NAD unable to permeates lipid bilayers (Di Lisa and Ziegler, 2001), several studies report evidence for exogenous NAD (eNAD) uptake by different cells “

These findings are at odds with the hypothesis that eNAD increase iNAD contents because of extracellularly-formed NAD precursors

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is transported into mammalian mitochondria

mitochondria do not synthesize NAD at all, but rather take it up intact from the cytosol, which in turn, can take up NAD from the extracellular space 
While mammalian mitochondria are generally considered to be impermeable to pyridine nucleotides (32,33), at least two studies have previously reported evidence for uptake of NAD

leading the authors to propose that intact NAD crosses the plasma membrane and subsequently enters the mitochondria directly

Increases energy and metabolism

Exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide regulates energy metabolism via hypothalamic Connexin 43

In this study, administration of LABELED NAD+ by IP and IV injection demonstrated that exogenous NAD+ crosses the blood brain barrier to enter the hypothalamus INTACT, reduces hunger and weight gain, and increases energy expenditure and fat burning in mice.

This study shows that NAD+ levels in the blood have a direct effect on the levels of metabolic activity in the body.

They also show that NR and NMN can not utilize the cd43 gap to cross the blood brain barrier.

This might explain why NAD+ clinics have found success treating addictions and other brain imbalances, but NR and NMN have not been used in similar fashion.

In mice, exogenous NAD may be transported to the hypothalamus via Cx43 at the blood-brain barrier [48] thereby increasing hypothalamic NAD content and decreasing food intake and weight gain.

Protects against age-related damage

Increased NAD+ levels protects against mitochondrial and age-related disorders (Srivastava,2016)

Reduced NAD+/NADH ratio is strongly implicated in mitochondrial disorders and, age-related disorders including diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration and cancer [26, 53, 60, 71].

NAD+ levels also decline during aging in multiple models including worms, rodents and human tissue [17, 45, 67, 72].

Increasing evidence suggests that boosting NAD+ levels could be clinically beneficial, as it activates the NAD+/sirtuin pathway which yields beneficial effects on multiple metabolic pathways

Protects against  liver damage

NAD+ administration decreases doxorubicin-induced liver damage of mice by enhancing antioxidation capacity and decreasing DNA damage.

NAD+ at the doses of 100 or 200 mg/kg was also injected intraperitoneally 1 h before the DOX administration.

NAD(+) is capable of increasing the antioxidation capacity of tissues.

NAD(+) can significantly decrease DOX-induced liver damage

can also selectively decrease tumor cell survival, NAD(+)

 

Multiple Sclerosis autoimmune neurodegeneration

Treatment with NAD(+) inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway and modulating Th1/Th17 immune responses in mice (Wang, 2016)

NAD(+) could be an effective and promising agent to treat multiple sclerosis

Prevents heart disease

Exogenous NAD Blocks Cardiac Hypertrophic Response via Activation of the SIRT3-LKB1-AMP-activated Kinase Pathway (Pillai, 2009)

Mice were simultaneously treated with NAD at 1 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks 

NAD treatment was capable of maintaining cellular NAD levels 

Exogenous supplementation of NAD restores the intracellular levels of NAD and blocks the cardiac hypertrophic response. 

These results indicated that NAD treatment prevented the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy 

NAD treatment restored the cellular NAD levels 

NAD treatment may become a panacea for prevention and cure of many diseases in the future

 

Prevents heart damage from Stroke

Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model (Zhang, 2016)

NAD+ produced 85% decrease in the infarct size

NAD+ is one of the drugs that have greatest capacity to decrease myocardial ischemia

NAD+ dose dependently decreased infarct formation

 

Decreased brain damage

Intranasal administration with NAD+ profoundly decreases brain injury in a rat model of transient focal ischemia (Ying,2007)

The profound protective effects of the intranasal NAD+ administration were also observed at 72 hrs after ischemia.

intranasal administration with 10 mg / kg NAD+, but not with 5 mg / kg NAD+, significantly attenuated the ischemia / reperfusion-produced neurological deficits

NAD+ administration can profoundly decrease brain damage under certain pathological conditions

 

Not limited by homeostasis

Supplying NAD+ direct to the bloodstream bypasses the liver, temporarily enabling a greater increase in NAD+ levels.

Any NAD+ (or NMN) in the bloodstream will get filtered out by the liver in 30-60 minutes.

So after an initial spike in NAD+, the same limits imposed by homeostasis in the liver will likely take effect.

This is why NAD+ clinics use slow IV drips to constantly supply NAD+ to the bloodstream rather than a single large daily injection of NAD+.

Frequent dosages throughout the day of our NAD+ sublingual tablets provide a steady supply of NAD+ direct to the bloodstream, avoiding the limits imposed by homeostasis in the liver.

What about NAD+ Injections?

NAD+ IV clinics have been treating patients for decades.

IV Injections avoid the digestion problem that limits the effectiveness of NAD+ Booster capsules.

They have found that an IV drip which provides a slow, constant supply of NAD+ directly to the bloodstream over a long period of time is the most effective delivery method.

Treatment plans are often 8-14 days, cost $1,000-$1,300 a day, and require the patient to sit for 8 hours or more hooked up to an IV drip.

In the last ten years, NAD+ has been more widely used to help detoxify from other types of chemical dependencies, including benzodiazepines, methadone, suboxone, methamphetamines and stimulants.

NAD+ Clinics

Below are some of the most well known clinics:

springfieldwellnesscenter.com

BR+ NAD Minimizes the Cravings and Withdrawal Symptoms of Addiction Detox through Brain Restoration

Our proprietary BR+ NAD IV treatment restores brain function while minimizing withdrawal symptoms and reducing or eliminating cravings. It further enhances brain function by improving clarity, well-being, and impulse control: your life is your own again.

Improves Brain Function

We are the leading provider of this breakthrough treatment in the US. We provide treatment for a growing list of conditions, beginning with addiction recovery and extending to Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s & other degenerative diseases.

nadtreatmentcenter.com

NAD Treatment Center™ is a provider of Brain Restoration Therapy, using intravenous NAD+. The therapy assists in alleviating brain-destroying diseases of alcoholism, addiction, chronic stress, depression and anxiety. Combining innovation and compassion, our medical team provides healing and hope for people who are affected by substance abuse and addiction. NAD+ supports the detoxification process and brain function to help your ongoing treatment and aftercare

ANTI-AGING
Researchers investigating brain health and longevity have found NAD+ is an essential coenzyme that promotes cellular regeneration. Studies have found replenishing cellular levels of NAD+ can repair DNA, protect brain cells from damage, reduce inflammation and turn on enzymes that help prevent aging.

ADDICTION
Intravenous NAD+ has been used since the 1960s to help individuals detoxify from alcohol and opioid dependencies. In the last ten years, NAD+ has been more widely used to help detoxify from other types of chemical dependencies, including benzodiazepines, methadone, suboxone, methamphetamines and stimulants.

CHRONIC CONDITIONS
Many chronic conditions, including chronic fatigue syndrome, neurodegenerative disease and mental health disorders have been linked to cellular dysfunction and dysregulation. NAD+ therapy may help reduce the symptoms of many chronic conditions, and may help individuals suffering from chronic conditions regain their vitality and strength.

ivforlife.com


What if there was a compound that could turn back time, restore energy, improve athletic performance, bring back clarity of thought, reverse depression and help cure cravings for alcohol and drugs even in the most addicted individuals?

There is such a substance. It is called NAD+, and it occurs naturally in every cell in your body.

Compelling research has shown that supplementing with NAD+ may help you withdraw from addictive substances safely, overcome anxiety and depression, handle acute and chronic stress more effectively, and cope better with PTSD.

In fact, clinics across the US are starting to use IV infusions of NAD+ to help people withdraw from drug and alcohol addiction with minimal symptoms in as little as 7-14 days of treatment. These individuals report feeling calm and content and say they lost their “cravings” after a full course of treatment.

And NAD+ may actually prolong life, protect DNA, slow down aging and help restore function in neurodegenerative illness due to its effects on the genes that govern aging.

kenstarrmd.com

Dr. Starr prescribes Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) for intravenous administration under the supervision of our trained registered nurses. NAD+ treatments are performed in our outpatient infusion rooms. While each infusion session typically takes a full 6-8 hours, the duration of NAD+ treatment typically requires 10 (or more) sessions to ensure complete results. For treatment for a non-addiction disorder, such as stress or anxiety, your treatment course may be shorter, and is ultimately determined during your medical assessment with Dr. Starr.

NAD+ Therapy involves a high dose intravenous infusion of NAD+ that goes straight into the bloodstream. IV therapy allows NAD+ to bypass the digestive system for better absorption. NAD+ works rapidly to repair cells throughout the body and neurons in the brain. When your NAD+ levels are increased, your cells produce more energy, your good genes are “turned on”, DNA is repaired, and many other functions are optimized. Since NAD+ is such a powerful and prolific molecule in the body, high dose IV therapy can be helpful for many different conditions.

CONDITIONS SUCCESSFULLY TREATED WITH NAD OR BRAIN RESTORATION THERAPY BR+

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
Parkinson’s Disease
Dementia
Chronic Migraine Headaches
PTSD
Interstitial Cystitis
Depression / Anxiety
Opiate Dependence
Alcohol Dependence
Stimulant Dependence

theholisticsanctuary.com

NAD is short for Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide. NAD is a coenzyme of Niacin, which is vitamin B3. Niacin produces energy in the body which is needed for its proper function and well-being. However, people that are involved in drug and alcohol abuse are deficient in NAD making it hard for them to get over their addictions. It is no wonder high-end drug rehabs used it to detox heavily addicted patients from tranquilizers, alcohol and stimulants among others.

NAD IV Drips Brain Restoration Therapy

A majority of people that are addicted to alcohol and other harmful drugs usually suffer from a severe form of neurotransmitter imbalance. This imbalance results in them experiencing insomnia, depression and anxiety among others. Apart from this imbalance, their bodies also absorb nutrients poorly leading to other mineral imbalances and their capability in forming neurotransmitters is also negatively affected. However, when amino acids are introduced into the body along other vitamins and coenzymes the proper levels are re-established and neurotransmitters begin to be properly circulated in the body, thus eliminating or at least reducing the withdrawal effects a drug addict would have otherwise experienced.

NAD IV Drips Brain Restoration Therapy is based on the supplementing of amino acids in the body so that it can be able to produce its own neurotransmitters and utilize them properly as well. When the production and utilization are done well through exercise and proper nutrition, the drug addict begins to get closer to being completely cured other than the suppression of symptoms as other conventional therapies have been known to do.

In general, the use of NAD amino acid IV drips to repair the brain of drug addicts has been quite successful. For those considering signing up for the treatment in any of the drug rehab centers run by professionals, it is important to note that:

The treatment only works when followed as described by a health worker at an accredited facility. Also, the length of treatment varies from one person to another thus making it important to exercise patient while seeking this kind of treatment for addiction. For example, alcohol addiction can be overcome much faster when compared to other hard drugs. Patients interested in NAD amino acid IV Drips should expect to be discouraged by medical experts on the use of this addiction treatment but with the proper administration, the results are likely to be successful. Finally, NAD IV Drips for Addiction Treatment can be a bit costly but the benefits are worth it in the long run.

addictioncenter.com

How is NAD Therapy Used?

NAD Therapy Requires The Use Of An IV DripIn NAD Therapy, the co-enzyme is placed in an IV and slowly dripped into the blood stream. This allows the substance to bypass the stomach (where analgesic medication breaks down) and travel directly to the brain. This provides the individual with a boost of energy, providing enhanced mood and awareness, as the energy they get is now from their natural sources, not other substances. It has also been claimed to slow the aging process. These benefits have opened the door for clinics to use it as a luxury, like a spa treatment.

Advertising it as an all-natural, mood-elevating, no-crash, anti-aging energy booster, clinics are selling to people who have not suffered an addiction of any kind. It is advertised as a therapeutic treatment to give them more energy and reverse aging. This procedure isn’t as lengthy as someone looking for rehabilitation and can be sold as a regular treatment appointment, receiving a “top off” every 6 to 8 weeks.

Why Use NAD Therapy to Treat Addiction?

It has been determined that the excessive use of drugs and alcohol will deplete the body’s natural stores of NAD. Because of this, the brain cannot receive the same energy it usually would from breaking down food. NAD Therapy floods the brain with the co-enzyme to replenish its stores, providing three key effects.

It flushes out all of the drugs that are still in the user’s system.
It curbs the cravings for alcohol and Opioids and lessens the pain of withdrawal, making recovery easier physically and mentally.
It allows the body to produce energy more naturally, without a crash or jitters like caffeine and sugar or the negative effects that come with other substances.
Length of sessions vary depending on severity of the addiction and what the clinic recommends. After the initial session, follow ups will be scheduled 1 to 2 months later. These sessions can continue at the discretion of the prescribing clinic.

NMN SUPPLEMENTATION

Blood Vessel Re-growth, Strength, Endurance

NMN shows a particular ability to restore vascular growth and benefit tissues such as muscle and heart that haven’t been replicated in studies with NR or NAD+.

Below are the three studies that made the biggest splash’s about the potential for reversing aging by restoring NAD+ to youthful levels that have ALL been accomplished using NMN

After 6 days of NMN, 22 month old mice  had the muscle capacity, endurance and metabolism of 6 month old  mice (2013 Sinclair study)

NMN effectively mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice (2016 Mills Long Term study)

“The old mice became as fit and strong as young mice” (Sinclair, 2018)

The third study identifies the key cellular mechanisms behind vascular aging and the critical role it plays on muscle health.

Dr Sinclairs team fed NMN to old mice. After two months, the mice had increased muscular blood flow, enhanced physical performance and endurance and the old mice became as fit and strong as young mice.

NEW BLOOD VESSELS sprouted within the skeletal muscles, capillary density increased and matched the capillary growth of young mice.

  • NMN restored the vascular system of old mice to that of young mice.
  • Mice treated with NMN had  had nearly 100% increased endurance.

Renewed capillary growth and increased blood flow may help reverse heart and neurological problems in addition to sarcopenia.

According to Dr. Sinclair, the same mechanism could spur the creation of blood vessels in the brain, where “the lack of oxygen and buildup of waste products sets off a downward spiral of disease and disability,” such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

NMN is stable in the bloodstream

Sublingual NMN does bypass the liver to send the NMN direct to the bloodstream where it can be used by cells that have their own salvage pathway to increase intercellular NAD+.

In vivo, NMN is found in blood plasma. When added to blood in vitro, it is stable. (Canto,Brenner 2016)

Our results further demonstrate that while NR is spontaneously converted to NAM in cell-free plasma, NMN is more resistant to this process.

On the contrary, NMN is stable in plasma and there is no NAM increase in NMN samples up to 1 h incubation.

 

homeostasis uncertain

500% NAD+ increase with NMN ?
The chart at right shows NAD+ increase measured in the liver (and soleus muscle) after 60 days of supplementation with NMN (Sinclair, 2018).

This is the best indication we have to date, but was with mice. With humans, there has been a Japanese clinical study completed, and one by Dr Sinclair, but neither has yet published the results.

We doubt they will show anywhere near this 500% increase, as NMN and NR are so closely related. But this does provide some hope that NMN is not subject to the same limits on the long-term increase of NAD+ levels as have been found with NR (above).

Alzheimers

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis is widely believed to be driven by the production and deposition of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Evidence now indicates that the solubility of Aβ, and the quantity of Aβ in different pools is related to disease state (r).Researchers believe that flaws in the processes governing production, accumulation or disposal of beta-amyloid are the primary cause of Alzheimer’s (r).

In studies published in 2017 and 2018 NMN decreased β-amyloid buildup, while NR did not.

“NR lessened pTau pathology in both 3xTgAD and 3xTgAD/Polβ+/− mice but had no impact on amyloid β peptide (Aβ) accumulation”(Hou, 2018)

“NMN decreased β-amyloid production, amyloid plaque burden, synaptic loss, and inflammatory responses in AD-Tg mice” (Yao, 2017)

Heart Disease

2 separate studies to treat a form of heart disease called Friedreich’s Ataxia with NR and NMN were published in 2017. Treatment with NMN was successful, while NR did not improve cardiac function.

“Remarkably, NMN administered to FXN-KO mice restores cardiac function to near-normal levels. “(Martin, 2017)

“In conclusion, NAD+ supplementation with NR in the FRDA model of mitochondrial heart disease does not alter SIRT3 activity or improve cardiac function.”(Stram, 2017)

Misc

NMN was able to mitigate most age-associated physiological declines in mice Treatment of old mice with NMN reversed all of these biochemical aspects of aging

Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice (mills, 2016)

Raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse

Restore the mitochondrial homeostasis and key biochemical markers of muscle health in a 22-month-old mouse to levels similar to a 6-month-old mouse

Declining NAD+ Induces a Pseudohypoxic State Disrupting Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Aging (Gomes, Sinclair,2013)

DNA Repair

This study showed supplementation with NMN was able to repair the DNA in cells damaged by radiation

The cells of old mice were indistinguishable from young mice after just one week of treatment.

A conserved NAD+ binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging (Sinclair, 2017)

WEIGHT

NMN was immediately utilized and converted to NAD+ within 15 min, resulting in significant increases in NAD+ levels over 60 min

Administering NMN, a key NAD+ intermediate, can be an effective intervention to treat the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced T2D

Surprisingly, just one dose of NMN normalized impaired glucose tolerance

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, a Key NAD+ Intermediate, Treats the Pathophysiology of Diet- and Age-Induced Diabetes in Mice (Yoshino, 2011)

NAD(+) levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN

NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance

NMN intervention is likely to be increased catabolism of fats NMN-supplementation does mimic exercise

Head to Head Comparison of Short-Term Treatment with the NAD(+) Precursor Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) and 6 Weeks of Exercise in Obese Female Mice (Uddin, 2016)

NMN significantly increased the level of NAD+ in the heart

NMN protected the heart from I/R injury

Nicotinamide mononucleotide, an intermediate of NAD+ synthesis, protects the heart from ischemia and repercussion (Yamamoto, 2014)

NMN reduces vascular oxidative stress

NMN treatment normalizes aortic stiffness in old mice

NMN represents a novel strategy for combating arterial aging

Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation reverses vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress with aging in mice (de Picciotto, 2016)

NMN can reduce myocardial inflammation NMN thus can cut off the initial inflammatory signal, leading to reduced myocardial inflammation

Short-term administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide preserves cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis and prevents heart failure (Zhang, 2017)

ENERGY

Remarkably, NMN administered to FXN-KO mice restores cardiac function to near-normal levels.

Restoration of cardiac function and energy metabolism upon NMN supplementation

Remarkable decrease in whole-body EE and cardiac energy wasting

Nicotinamide mononucleotide requires SIRT3 to improve cardiac function and bioenergetics in a Friedreich’s ataxia cardiomyopathy model

VISION

Exogenous NMN prevents photoreceptor degeneration and restores vision

NMN rescues retinal dysfunction in light-induced degeneration

 

NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis is essential for vision in mice (lin, 2016)

Clinical Studies

Completed and pending publication

Beginning 2018

  • 2018 Sinclair Metrobio study – Phase 2

The Phase 1 study by Dr Sinclair has been completed, and they are ready to go forward with the Phase 2 study, so we can conclude there were positive results, and no negative side effects, else they would have to publish those immediately.

In the University of Washington study, participants are 50 healthy women between 55 and 70 years of age with slightly high blood glucose,BMI and triglyceride levels.

Using a dose of 2 capsules of 125mg NMN per day over a period of 8 weeks, researchers are testing for:

  • change in beta-cell function
  • works to control blood sugar
  • blood vessels dilate
  • effects of NMN on blood lipids
  • effects of NMN on body fat
  • markers of cardiovascular and metabolic health

The active supplementation portion of this study has ended, but testing of metabolic parameters will continue for 2 years after supplementation has ended.  So researchers know the immediate effects and  preliminary results are expected to be announced in 2018, with  final results expected in 2020.
 

NR SUPPLEMENTATION

NR is NOT STABLE and not found in blood plasma

In both mice and humans, studies repeatedly failed to find any NR in the blood plasma at any time, even after very high dosages of NR (97, 98, 99) NR has been found at trace levels in inside blood cells.

The following quote from this Dr Brenner study also did not find NR in bloodstream after oral supplements, but was found in trace amounts after Injection.

NR varied and displayed no response to NR administration… but was detected after IP of double labeled NR.

When added to blood plasma in the lab, NR is unstable and quickly deteriorates to NAM (Canto,Brenner 2016).

∼10% of NR degraded after 10 min and ∼66% degraded after 1 h (Fig. 8e), which is further illustrated by gradual increase in NAM abundance in the samples (Fig. 8g).

NR is quickly taken up by cells and elevates NAD+ in the liver, but is not found outside the liver in blood plasma. This implies much of the overlapping benefits of NR with NMN and NAD+ are due to the increased NAD+ created in the liver.

NR effective in liver short term

The Trammell research shows that in the liver, NMN and NAD+ must be degraded to NR before crossing the cell membrane before converting back to NMN and then NAD+. This may be why a single dose of NR increases NAD+ levels in the liver more than NMN, NAM, NA and other NAD+ metabolites as shown here.

This short term advantage for NR in the liver does not apply to all tissues, as both NMN and NAD+ have been shown to cross the cellular membrane in heart, brain, and other tissues.

NR limited by HOMEOSTASIS


The Liver is the “engine” that supplies the great majority of NAD+ to the rest of the body (Liu,2018).

In the Trammel thesis, Dr Brenner consumed 1000 mg of NR. At day 1, his NAD+ was increased by 270%.

The Elysium study used 500 mg of NR per day (plus pterostilbene). NAD+ was increased in blood plasma by 90% at 30 days, and dropped to 55% at 60 days.

The authors of the Elysium study believe that homeostasis limits the maximum increase in NAD+ that can be sustained over the long term.

High levels of NAD+ can induce homeostatic mechanisms to restrain further increases.

This may explain why those taking NR capsules often report increased energy, which seems to fade after some time. Homeostasis has brought their NAD+ levels back down and the hypothalamus isn’t getting the message to increase metabolism as it did back on day 1.

While 50% increase is helpful, keep in mind that as we age, our NAD+ levels drop in half. So the average person would need to DOUBLE their NAD+ levels – a 100% increase – to reach the levels they have in youth.

SUMMARY:

    • Sublingual delivery is required for all NAD+ metabolites and precursors to avoid digestion in the stomach and liver.
    • NAD+ clinics use slow drip IV of NAD+ to avoid the stomach and liver. They are exploding in popularity, but the extreme cost and time required for treatment severely limit their application for the general public.
    • Sublingual NAD+ delivery solves the bioavailability problem and mimics the slow drip delivery used successfully by NAD+ IV clinics.
    • Sublingual NAD+ is not subject to the homeostasis that limits NAD+ increase with NR (and perhaps NMN), as it is supplied directly to the bloodstream.
    • We believe the ability of NAD+ to increase metabolism through the hypothalamus has a great impact on the entire body. This is accomplished directly from increased NAD+ circulating in blood plasma, and not from NMN or NR.
    • Other organs such as heart, liver, kidney, and lungs also clearly benefit from increased circulating NAD+, but there is evidence NR an NMN may have similar effectiveness.
    • Exogenous NR increases circulating NAD+ levels, but after several weeks, that increase is severely limited by homeostasis.
    • Exogenous NMN elevates NAD+ levels similar to NR, but seems to be less limited by homeostasis. Publication of recently completed research should shed more light on that question.


NMN demonstrates a remarkable ability to rapidly restore vascular growth that has not been shown with use of NR or NAD+.

 

Sublingual NAD+ will lead to a greater increase in circulating NAD+ than NR or NMN supplements.

Dosage and Frequency

SHORT WINDOW FOR MAXIMUM AVAILABILITY

The chart at right is from the 2016 Mills study with mice given 300 mg/kg of bodyweight by oral gavage.

It clearly shows NMN is found in blood plasma within minutes, peaking at around 15 minutes. After that, NMN drops rapidly in blood, and appears as increased NAD+ in the liver.

Of course this is in Mice, and humans have a slower response, but we believe it is during the short time period when NMN is available in the bloodstream and can reach tissues throughout the body that the real benefits occur.

FREQUENCY – HOW OFTEN TO TAKE

Nearly all research on mice and humans using NR and NMN is focused on measuring NAD+ and the various metabolites in the Liver as it is the primary supplier of NAD+ throughout the body (r).

If elevating NAD+ in the liver is the goal, 1-2 larger dosages per day seem to be sufficient to achieve the maximum increase in liver NAD+  (r).

OUTSIDE THE LIVER

However, we believe supplying NMN directly to the bloodstream is more effective at increasing NAD+  not just in the Liver, but throughout the body.

Smaller, More Frequent dosages

Based on the short window that exogenous NMN is available in the bloodstream before being filtered out by the Liver, we believe smaller, more frequent dosages are likely more effective than 1-2 larger dosages.

Using this philosophy, many of our customers have been reporting more perceived benefit from more frequent intake, with many taking 6-12 times per day.  We recommend taking 4-8 times per day, with at least 1 hour between dosages.

NOT EVERY DAY

We recommend taking 2-3 days off per week, ideally on days when you will be getting the least exercise. If you relax more on the weekend that is a good time to not take NMN.

CONCLUSION – WHAT WE RECOMMEND

Dr Sinclair takes 500 Mg of NMN CAPSULES per day and prescribes the same for his father, which is in line with dosages used in current and recently completed research on humans.

There is likely an upper limit on the effective dosage of NMN and NR capsules, which seems to be between 500 and 1,000 Mg per day.

We believe that sublingual delivery allows a much greater percentage of NMN to bypass the liver and reach other tissues.  

When split between multiple smaller dosages, we believe 1,000-1,500 Mg a day can be taken before reaching the limit on maximum effectiveness.

We recommend taking 1 tablet, 4 to 8 times per day.   Ideally, 1 upon waking, 1 immediately before and after exercise, and 1 before bed, with any others spread throughout the day.

Customer Reviews

– Some Amazing Reviews from our customers on Amazon –

Research

NMN was able to mitigate most age-associated physiological declines in mice Treatment of old mice with NMN reversed all of these biochemical aspects of aging

Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice (mills, 2016)

Raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse

Restore the mitochondrial homeostasis and key biochemical markers of muscle health in a 22-month-old mouse to levels similar to a 6-month-old mouse

Declining NAD+ Induces a Pseudohypoxic State Disrupting Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Aging (Gomes, Sinclair,2013)

DNA Repair

This study showed supplementation with NMN was able to repair the DNA in cells damaged by radiation

The cells of old mice were indistinguishable from young mice after just one week of treatment.

A conserved NAD+ binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging (Sinclair, 2017)

WEIGHT

NMN was immediately utilized and converted to NAD+ within 15 min, resulting in significant increases in NAD+ levels over 60 min

Administering NMN, a key NAD+ intermediate, can be an effective intervention to treat the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced T2D

Surprisingly, just one dose of NMN normalized impaired glucose tolerance

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, a Key NAD+ Intermediate, Treats the Pathophysiology of Diet- and Age-Induced Diabetes in Mice (Yoshino, 2011)

NAD(+) levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN

NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance

NMN intervention is likely to be increased catabolism of fats NMN-supplementation does mimic exercise

Head to Head Comparison of Short-Term Treatment with the NAD(+) Precursor Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) and 6 Weeks of Exercise in Obese Female Mice (Uddin, 2016)

NMN significantly increased the level of NAD+ in the heart

NMN protected the heart from I/R injury

Nicotinamide mononucleotide, an intermediate of NAD+ synthesis, protects the heart from ischemia and repercussion (Yamamoto, 2014)

NMN reduces vascular oxidative stress

NMN treatment normalizes aortic stiffness in old mice

NMN represents a novel strategy for combating arterial aging

Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation reverses vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress with aging in mice (de Picciotto, 2016)

NMN can reduce myocardial inflammation NMN thus can cut off the initial inflammatory signal, leading to reduced myocardial inflammation

Short-term administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide preserves cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis and prevents heart failure (Zhang, 2017)

ENERGY

Remarkably, NMN administered to FXN-KO mice restores cardiac function to near-normal levels.

Restoration of cardiac function and energy metabolism upon NMN supplementation

Remarkable decrease in whole-body EE and cardiac energy wasting

Nicotinamide mononucleotide requires SIRT3 to improve cardiac function and bioenergetics in a Friedreich’s ataxia cardiomyopathy model

VISION

Exogenous NMN prevents photoreceptor degeneration and restores vision

NMN rescues retinal dysfunction in light-induced degeneration

 

NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis is essential for vision in mice (lin, 2016)

Clinical Studies with NMN

Completed and pending publication

Beginning 2018

  • 2018 Sinclair Metrobio study – Phase 2

The Phase 1 study by Dr Sinclair has been completed, and they are ready to go forward with the Phase 2 study, so we can conclude there were positive results, and no negative side effects, else they would have to publish those immediately.

In the University of Washington study, participants are 50 healthy women between 55 and 70 years of age with slightly high blood glucose,BMI and triglyceride levels.

Using a dose of 2 capsules of 125mg NMN per day over a period of 8 weeks, researchers are testing for:

  • change in beta-cell function
  • works to control blood sugar
  • blood vessels dilate
  • effects of NMN on blood lipids
  • effects of NMN on body fat
  • markers of cardiovascular and metabolic health

The active supplementation portion of this study has ended, but testing of metabolic parameters will continue for 2 years after supplementation has ended.  So researchers know the immediate effects and  preliminary results are expected to be announced in 2018, with  final results expected in 2020.
 

What is NAD+

WHAT IS NAD+

NAD+ is a key co-enzyme that the mitochondria in every cell of our bodies depend on to fuel all basic functions. (3,4)

NAD+ play a key role in communicating between our cells nucleus and the Mitochondria that power all activity in our cells (5,6,7)

Scientists have now confirmed a direct link between falling NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and in human subjects.

Read more about NAD+  

NAD+ DECLINES WITH AGE

As we age, our bodies produce less NAD+ and the communication between the Mitochondria and cell nucleus is impaired. (5,8,10).

Over time,  decreasing NAD+ impairs the cell’s ability to make energy, which leads to aging and disease (8, 5) and perhaps even the key factor in why we age (5).

Read more about NAD+

FAQ's

  • Whats the difference in ingredients between powder and tablets
  • Thanks for your interest. We feel the powder is a bit more effective as it absorbed instantly, with none spreading out to other parts of the mouth and being swallowed.

    The tablets are more convenient to carry around and take throughout the day.

    We believe many doses throughout the day are key to achieving the best/fastest results, so the convenience of the tablets is important for some people.

    If you will only take it a few times a day while at home, the convenience isn’t as important and the jars of powder are better.

    Actually, for most people the best answer is both. Powder in the morning, before bed, and whenever at home. Carrying the tablets for whenever you will be away from home for several hours.

  • Why 4-8 tablets instead of 2-4 like you used to recommend?
  • Sublingual tablets bypass the digestive system so more NMN can be absorbed optimally and deliver a lot more NMN directly to the bloodstream and on to other cells and tissues throughout the body. This delivery method is also more advantageous regarding your investment.

    NMN is an expensive product and cost will often be a factor in how much a user chooses to take. There is no required minimum dosage.

    2 sublingual tablets a day will provide more benefit than from 2 Capsules that are swallowed and digested in the GI tract, and is a good choice for cost effectiveness.

    We recommend what we feel is the maximum useful dosage so people can experience the maximum benefit – not a minimal dosage to make the product seem more affordable.

    We previously recommended a lower dosage as we weren’t sure how higher dosages were utilized by the body and did not want to encourage users to incur more expense than necessary for maximum effect.

    Now, more experience with sublingual usage has shown that smaller, more frequent dosages are more effective.

    Users find 4 dosages are noticeably better than the 2 times a day we previously recommended.

    Most users also find even more benefit from 8 times a day.

    So we encourage customers to try 4-8 dosages a day, but twice a day is a reasonable choice for cost effectiveness.

  • What is homeostasis – how does it effect NAD+ ?
  • The Trammel thesis, and Elysium study shows homeostasis limits the long term increase of NAD+ in the liver.

    In Trammel, Dr Brenner consumed 1000 mg of NR. At day 1, his liver NAD+ was increased by 270%.

    The Elysium study used 250 or 500 mg of NR per day (plus pterostilbene). Liver NAD+ was increased by 40 or 90% at 30 days, and dropped to 40 or 55% at 60 days.

    The authors of the Elysium study believe that homeostasis limits the maximum increase in Liver NAD+ that can be sustained over the long term.

    So, when taking capsules, 500 mg a day can increase liver NAD+ around 50%, and is about the maximum useful dosage.

    While 50% increase is helpful, keep in mind that as we age, our NAD+ levels drop in half. So if you have half the NAD+ as when you were young, a 50% increase would take you up to 75% of your youthful levels.

    We know that supplying NMN or NAD+ directly to the bloodstream bypasses the liver, so homeostasis that limits liver NAD+, does not limit the NAD+ levels in the bloodstream.

  • What happens if I stop taking a NAD+ booster?
  • As we age, we have increasing damage to our cells. Our bodies constantly repair the damage, but it is a constant battle. One analogy I use is that NAD+ are like the workers that repair roads and structures in a city.

    When we are young, we have plenty of NAD+, and the city is new, so there is no problem keeping up with the repairs.

    As we age, the roads and buildings deteriorate, and the limited number of workers (NAD+), fall behind in maintenance. Lower priority problems get skipped. More and more problems (disease) develop.

    You don’t get old in a day, week, or month. Having insufficient NAD+ levels over years leads to slow deterioration.

    Restoring NAD+ levels is like hiring more workers for your city. The most critical needs are addressed first. After that, lower priority tasks get done.

    Any repairs your body can make due to having more NAD+ do not disappear overnight, just as you don’t age in one day.

    You will probably find the increased energy levels you have from taking a NAD+ booster fade away over some days or weeks. Other benefits will take longer to disappear.

  • Why take some days off (cycle) NAD+ precursors?
  • 3 reasons we recommend this in our protocol:

    1. Homeostasis – The body adapts to everything and attempts to reach a balance. Taking precursors to boost your NAD+ levels higher may cause your body to slow down the recycling process.
    2. Downstream NAD+ metabolites – NAM and MeNam result from NAD+ consumption. The liver/kidneys will process them and get rid of excess amounts of both in the urine, but we think it is helpful to take a break to avoid buildup.
    3. Rest – Many users report greatly increased energy and endurance with NMN, and find they exercise a lot more. Some report getting a bit tired after a few weeks of such increased activity. This may be due to overtraining, or just getting less sleep. Stopping the NMN for a few days each week avoids this.

  • Why would I take NMN vs NAD+ or some other NAD+ precursor?
  • There are several other precursors the body can use to make NAD, such as NR, NAM, Niacin, and Tryptophan. Normally, they would all go through the liver and depend on the body normal process to manufacture NAD. That is the process that has not been able to keep up with the demand as we age.

    You can try to encourage the liver to produce more NAD, which is what oral supplementation of NMN, NR, and all other precursors do. But that route does bump up against homeostasis, which limits how much you can get outside the liver.

    The Liu study shows that CD38 breaks down NAD in the liver, and ONLY excretes NAM to the rest of the body (when using 50 mg/kg in mice). So it is very limited in ability to reach outside the liver.

    So the whole point is to take a shortcut around that process and supply NAD directly to more cells throughout the body.

    Providing NMN direct to the bloodstream via sublingual delivery is not the same as providing NAD+ direct to the bloodstream via sublingual delivery. They both can have an affect on some tissues, but perhaps not all. There is surely some overlap in their effect, but also some differences. It is surely different than dumping NAM, Niacen, NR, NMN, or NAD into the liver.

    The short answer is, NAD for brain, NMN for the body.

  • Why are you selling both NMN and NAD+ supplements?
  • If we KNEW that one was clearly superior for all health challenges, we would only offer that one, and nothing else.

    In 2017, we were by far the biggest seller of NMN capsules, but stopped selling that product because we believe sublingual delivery is 10x more effective and did not want to sell an inferior product, even though we could have made a lot of money by selling both.

    We are offering NMN and NAD+ now, because we believe they both will have unique benefits. We will have a more detailed article on the differences soon, but we’ll repeat the short answer here – NAD for brain, NMN for the body.

  • What about NADH – can I take that in place of NAD+ ?
  • NAD+ levels drop as we age. NADH levels do not. The ratio of NAD+ to NADH is the key, and benefits come from increasing that ratio.

    Increasing levels of NADH in the body are the exact opposite of what you want for health.

    It is easier to produce, so became popular over the last few years.

    It can provide an effect on mood, which is why some people take NADH, but is not good for your health – it is the opposite of what you want.

  • What if I take NR, NAD+ and NMN ?
  • NR is not currently available in a sublingual form. NR capsules will go through the liver and use the bodies normal salvage pathway to produce NAD in the liver, and some will make it to the rest of the body.

    If you also take NAD+ and NMN sublingually, perhaps 30% of that sublingual NAD and NAM will make it direct to the bloodstream and be taken up by cells throughout the body, with different affinities for different tissues than what is supplied from the liver.

    We believe that NR, NMN, and NAD all have overlapping benefits. We also believe each have specific benefit for different parts of the body.

    The short answer is, NMN for the body, and NAD+ for the brain.

    One might provide more benefit to more tissues throughout the body, but you might also benefit from another NAD+ booster that reaches a different tissue more effectively.

    If you are looking for what is the “most bang for the buck”, we currently believe that is sublingual NMN.

    If your funds are not limited, it might be helpful to take all 3.

  • I have read that NR is the largest molecule that can cross the cell membrane, and both NMN and NAD+ must be degraded back to NR to enter cells directly – is this true?