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Exogenous NAD+ increases metabolism, energy expenditure, decreases hunger and blood glucose.

Effects of Chronic NAD Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Diurnal Rhythm in Obese Mice

This study published Sept 26 2018 gave obese mice 1 mg/kg of NAD+ by inter peritoneal injection for 4 weeks, which  restored NAD+ levels in the hypothalamus to normal levels.

The hypothalamus is the master regulator of metabolism.  Decreased levels of NAD+ are found in hypothalamus with obesity, disease, and the normal aging process.

In this study, supplementation with NAD+ :

  • Restored NAD+ levels to normal
  • Increased Energy Expenditure
  • Increased metabolism rate
  • Decreased Blood glucose levels
  • Decreased Cholesterol levels
  • Improved sleep patterns
  • Improved weight control

NAD+ Controls energy metabolism

This research confirms and extends earlier research on the importance of NAD+ levels on energy metabolism and the effectiveness of NAD+ supplementation to restore vigor. I covered this more fully in this article.

Prior research in mice and humans has shown some of these effects from supplementation with NAD+ precursors such as NR and NMN (1,2,3,4 5).

What is notable in this study is that a dose of only 1 mg/kg per day was able to achieve all these results over a short period of 4 weeks. As the authors note, this is a 100x smaller dosage than required for NAD+ precursors NMN and NR to achieve some of the same results.

It is notable that supplementation with NAD by itself, at a 100-times lower dose compared with those of its precursors NMN and NR (25,26), caused a beneficial metabolic effect

Restores NAD+ levels

Decreased Blood Glucose Levels

Increased Energy

Decreased Hunger

Relevance: The improvements in metabolism from supplementation with NR or NMN are most likely the result of those precursors being metabolized to NAD+ in the liver. Supplementation with NAD+ provides the same benefits for metabolism through a more direct route and requiring much smaller dosages to achieve the desired results.



Prior Research

The increased efficiency of NAD+ supplementation vs NMN or NR in restoring metabolism is also seen in this study published August 29, 2018.

Exogenous Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Regulates Energy Metabolism via Hypothalamic Connexin 43

Researchers were able to trace labeled NAD+ to prove it does enter the hypothalamus directly, without conversion to NR or NMN as many had previously supposed.

They also show that NR and NMN are NOT ABLE to cross the blood brain barrier to the hypothalamus.

Read more about that study here

Importance of Hypothalamus for Energy Metabolism

Hypothalamic circuits regulating appetite and energy homeostasis:  pathways to obesity

The hypothalamus in particular has emerged as an integrating, superordinate master regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis.

In summary, the hypothalamus plays a key role in the regulation of appetite and food intake both in humans and rodents.

Hypothalamic inflammation impairs the effects of insulin and leptin, contributing not only to hyperphagia and obesity development but also to the associated dysregulation of glucose homeostasis.

Brain regulation of appetite and satiety

Energy homeostasis is controlled mainly by neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and brainstem.

Brain Regulation of Energy Metabolism (Roh, 2016)

The hypothalamus is the region of the brain that controls food intake and body weight.

Leptin and insulin signal the status of body energy stores to the hypothalamus.

Hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis (Sainsbury, 2002)

These peripheral hormones influence their effects on energy homeostasis either by activating or inhibiting the activity of the orexigenic or anorexic peptides within the hypothalamus.

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