The sirtuins form a family of evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases. Seven sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) have been described in mammals, with specific intracellular localization and biological functions associated with mitochondrial energy homeostasis, antioxidant activity, proliferation and DNA repair.
Physical exercise affects the expression of sirtuin in skeletal muscle, regulating changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative metabolism and the cellular antioxidant system. In this context, sirtuin 1 and sirtuin 3 have been the most studied.
This review focuses on the effects of different types of exercise on these sirtuins, the molecular pathways involved and the biological effect that is caused mainly in healthy subjects. The reported findings suggest that an acute load of exercise activates SIRT1, which in turn activates biogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative capacity.
Additionally, several sessions of exercise (training) activates SIRT1 and also SIRT3 that, together with the biogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative function, jointly activate ATP production and the mitochondrial antioxidant function."