2020 Apr;132:110831. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2020.110831. Epub 2020 Jan 7.
NAD+ Therapy in Age-Related Degenerative Disorders: A Benefit/Risk Analysis
Nady Braidy 1, Yue Liu 2
PMID: 31917996 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2020.110831
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that is present in all living cells. NAD+ acts as an important cofactor and substrate for a multitude of biological processes including energy production, DNA repair, gene expression, calcium-dependent secondary messenger signalling and immunoregulatory roles. The de novo synthesis of NAD+ is primarily dependent on the kynurenine pathway (KP), although NAD+ can also be recycled from nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NAD+ levels have been reported to decline during ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that raising intracellular NAD+ levels represents a promising therapeutic strategy for age-associated degenerative diseases in general and to extend lifespan in small animal models. A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken to evaluate the potential health and/or longevity benefits due to increasing NAD+ levels. A total of 1545 articles were identified and 147 articles (113 preclinical and 34 clinical) met criteria for inclusion. Most studies indicated that the NAD+ precursors NAM, NR, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), and to a lesser extent NAD+ and NADH had a favourable outcome on several age-related disorders associated with the accumulation of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation and impaired mitochondrial function. While these compounds presented with a limited acute toxicity profile, evidence is still quite limited and long-term human clinical trials are still nascent in the current literature. Potential risks in raising NAD+ levels in various clinical disorders using NAD+ precursors include the accumulation of putative toxic metabolites, tumorigenesis and promotion of cellular senescence. Therefore, NAD+ metabolism represents a promising target and further studies are needed to recapitulate the preclinical benefits in human clinical trials.
I hear you drkris69.
But millions of people worldwide die from different forms of cancer annually and the vast majority of those would not even know what NMN or NAD+ are let alone be taking the molecules. I most always go with the gut feeling as most animals and birds etc do... They instinctively know what berries and food are edible and which are not but as humans we have lost that natural ability over time even though we are suppose to be “more intelligent”
I sometimes wonder?
I agree there is always some fear regarding tumors. We have not seen any clinical signs of this in the office currently. This year should provide some reasonable data on humans and hopefully will answer some questions.