Do NMN and NAD⁺ have different effects on the body?
Researchers use supplementation with NMN, NR and NAD⁺ to restore levels of NAD⁺ in mice, making them look and behave like they did when young and extending their lifespan.
Although they have similar effect in some organs, there may be differences in the effect they have in other tissues throughout the body.
NAD⁺ not effective in drinking water or in capsule form
The NAD⁺ molecule is twice as large as NR or NMN, and is totally degraded in the gastrointestinal tract, so researchers do not use NAD⁺ in drinking water of mice and it is not sold in capsule form for humans.
NAD⁺ in IV or IP injections
Research has been successful using NAD⁺ injections in mice.
In humans, clinics that provide NAD⁺ by IV are exploding in popularity, even though they charge over $1,000 a day and require the patient to be hooked up to a drip IV for 8 hours.
NMN and NR poor bioavailability in capsules
NMN and NR capsules are only partially digested in the stomach, but are almost totally metabolized in the liver and excreted as NAM (Liu, 2018).
Sublingual delivery solves the bioavailability problem
Molecules like NMN, NR and NAD⁺ that have low molecular weight and are hydrophilic can be absorbed through the capillaries under the tongue directly into the bloodstream. This is called Sublingual (under the tongue) delivery.
Administration of LABELED NAD+ by IP and IV injection of just 1 mg/kg a day demonstrated that exogenous NAD+ crosses the blood brain barrier to enter the hypothalamus INTACT, reduces hunger and weight gain, and increases energy expenditure and fat burning in mice.
They also show that NR and NMN can not utilize the cd43 gap to cross the blood brain barrier.
This might explain why In humans, NAD+ clinics have found success treating addictions and other brain imbalances, but NR and NMN have not been used in similar fashion.
Ketosis is a metabolic state in which fat provides most of the fuel for the body. It occurs when there is limited access to glucose (blood sugar), which is the preferred fuel source for many cells in the body.
Ketosis can occur in many different diet plans whenever carb intake is low, but is most often associated the Ketogenic Diet, as that is a much easier method for restricting carbs (3, 4, 5, 6).
The Red bars in the chart at left show the increased levels of the Ketone Body BHB produced from a cyclical Keto diet, resulting in Increased NAD+ and greatly improved neurological function and health.
Researchers are finding that 2-3 short bouts of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) per week is far more effective at lowering inflammation (and increasing NAD+), especially among older adults (55)
Exercise is very effective at boosting AMPK and NAD+, especially when performed at times of low blood glucose levels ( more about HIIT ).
Short bouts of HIIT accomplishes the goal, while avoiding overtraining from endurance workouts which increases inflammation and consumes NAD+ (55).
Sublingual delivery may help NAD+ metabolites and precursors avoid digestion in the stomach and liver.
NAD+ clinics use slow drip IV of NAD+ to avoid the stomach and liver. They are exploding in popularity, but the extreme cost and time required for treatment severely limit their application for the general public.
Sublingual NAD+ delivery may help solve the bioavailability problem and mimics the slow drip delivery used successfully by NAD+ IV clinics.
We believe the ability of NAD+ to increase metabolism through the hypothalamus has a great impact on the entire body.