LSG™ – combining the power of Liposomes & Sublingual delivery in advanced Gel technology
Many natural product suffer from poor bioavailability when taken in capsule form, as they are digested in the GI tract.
We took the first step in solving that problem with our NMN and NAD+ powders and sublingual tablets.
That approach does not work well for all products as the taste is not acceptable by themselves. We have solved that problem with our advanced nanoliposomes designed for sublingual delivery.
LSG™ nanoparticles are 20-40 nanometers – smaller than wavelengths of visible light – to maximize biological efficiency and precision performance. Smaller lipsomes penetrate the epithelium more readily, and are not filtered out by the liver as larger liposomes are.
Our nanoparticulate Gel technology is formulated to improve active compound permeability across the epithelium, provide optimal solubilization and maximize systemic release kinetics.
Liposomes are vesicles comprised of phospholipid molecules – the same molecules that comprise cell membranes. Liposomal drug delivery systems have excellent biocompatibility, low toxicity and lack of immune system activation.
Phospholipid molecules consist of a hydrophilic phosphate head and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails. These features enable liposomes to be able to transport hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds effectively.
Due to low absorption and bioavailability rates of traditional oral dietary capsules, the encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic nutrients within liposomes allows the active ingredient to bypass the destructive elements of the gastric system.
Liposomes release drug molecules by membrane fusion. To release the protected molecules to a site of action, the lipid bilayer fuses with other bilayers such as the cell membrane, delivering the liposome contents directly into the cells and tissues intact.
Research on Lipsomes for increased bioavailabilityLiposomes protect products from digestion in the GI tract, but that is only the first step. The improved bioavailability varies greatly, depending on the molecule itself and the quality of the liposome. Water solubility. Molecules with very poor water solubility usually have the worst bioavailability and can benefit the most from liposomal delivery. Fisetin is one example shown below up to 27x more bioavailable.Liposome Stability. Liposomes need modification to increase stability so they do not break apart and release their payload when exposed to the GI tract and bloodstream. Recent advances in Liposomal technology enables skilled manufacturers to adjust the stability so the payload is protected for several hours. Different manufacturing techniques result in significant variation in stability and bioavailability. Liposome size. As noted above, size of the liposome is crucial. Larger Lipsomes are quickly filtered out by the liver and other parts of the RES. Smaller liposomes (below 50 nanometers) can circulate much longer. The study on B-12 below shows the larger size liposome formula increased bioavailability of 3xvs 5x for the smaller sized liposomal formula.
Liposomal Fisetin 1.6 to 27x more bioavailableThis study in mice found a 2.7-fold increase (in Cmax) with Liposomal Fisetin, with a dose 10 times lower than that of the free fisetin when given by IP. With IV, the Cmax of liposomal fisetin was 10, vs 6 for free fisetin.
Fisetin a powerful senolytic that extends health and lifespanSenescent cells are defective older cells that are no longer functioning as they should. Most are cleared out and recycled by our immune systems, but as we age, more and more of these defective cells build up.Sometimes called "zombie cells", they cause significant harm by secreting molecules that cause inflammation to surrounding cells, leading to more impairment.Increased systemic inflammation is now recognized as a leading contributor to all age related disease and aging itself. Clearing out of senescent cells can lower systemic inflammation and turn back aging to some degree.https://www.ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352-3964(18)30373-6/fulltextThis new study found that Fisetin is more effective than any currently know senolytic compound, destroying 25-50% of senescent cells. The dose used equates to 500 mg per day for five days for a 60kg human.A Phase 2 human trial is underway now, using 20 mg/kg a day for 2 days.This current research with Fisetin was exciting because it is:
- very effective at clearing senescent cells
- a well studied natural product with very good safety profile
- has many well documented health benefits
- not required to use daily
- has already passed phase 1 safety tests in humans
Killing Zombie cells is attracting big investorsTherapies to kill these zombie cells is attracting big money investors. San Francisco based Unity biotech received $385m from a group including Jeff Bezos and Peter Thiel, and just went public in May for $700m.New startups like eattle based Oisin Biotech raised $4m, while Netherlands based Cleara Biotech was formed in June with $3m funding.They are all focusing on drug combinations that can be patented, which clearly makes business sense as demonstrated by the flow of dollars into this burgeoning field.
Senescent cell clearance and NAD+ boosting therapiesSupplements to restore NAD+ levels are generating a lot of excitement among researchers working to extend Healthspan. Researchers looking to uncover WHY NAD+ levels drop have found increased systemic inflammation consumes more and more NAD+ as we age.Increasing NAD+ levels thru supplementation is being shown to have many health benefits, but likely has limits as the increased inflammation will eventually overwhelm any supplementation therapy.Senescent cells are like little factories, spewing poisons that greatly increase inflammation in surrounding cells. Minimizing systemic inflammation by killing these zombie cells will make it easier to restore NAD+ levels.
How to try Fisetin for killing senescent cellsFisetin has been widely used for it's cancer fighting and numerous other health benefits (below), normally at 100-200mg per day.This new research has spurred much self experimentation among the "bio-hackers" at Longecity.org, so you might want to read there if you are interested in trying this yourself.Most users on that forum are trying 1,000 to 2,000 mg per day, for 2-5 days. The Phase 2 human study with Fisetin used 20 mg per kg of body weight for 2 days.Quotes from this study:
the first to document extension of both health span and lifespan by a senolytic with few side effects, even though administration was started late in life.Taken together, these data establish the natural product fisetin as a potent senotherapeutic
demonstrate that reducing the senescent cell burden in mice even late in life is sufficient to have a significant health impact.
Taken together, these studies demonstrate that senolytic compounds can have significant effects on chronic degenerative diseases and age-related pathology.
Fisetin treatment extended the health and lifespan in WT mice even when treatment was initiated in aged animals.Importantly, no adverse effects of fisetin have been reported, even when given at high doses.
22–24-month-old mice were treated with 100 mg/kg fisetin for 5 consecutive days by oral gavage, or vehicle only.The short-course treatment with fisetin resulted in a significant reduction in the fraction of senescent cells in each of these populations (Fig. 4C).This resulted in an extension of median as well as maximal lifespan (Fig. 5A-B).Brain, kidney, liver, lung, and forepaw tissue sections ... had reduced age-related pathology in the fisetin diet groupFisetin has anti-cancer activity and appears to block the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway . Other biological activities include anti-hyperlipidemic [84–86], anti-inflammatory , and neurotrophic  effects.Given that fisetin is a natural product found in common foods and available as an oral dietary supplement and has no reported adverse side effects, our pre-clinical data suggest that fisetin should be imminently translatable and could have a significant benefit to the health of elderly patients.
Fisetin SnapshotFisetin is a flavonol, a chemical that belongs to the flavonoid group of polyphenols. Fisetin is a type of plant pigment that gives color to many fruits and vegetables (R, R1).
- Great for reducing inflammation
- Improves brain function and memory
- Great antioxidant
- Natural pain killer
- Increases the master antioxidant – Glutathione
- Maintains stable blood sugar
- Good for a diverse array of conditions
Previously Documented Health Benefits of FisetinNote that there are very few trials of fisetin with humans and nearly all of the studies listed here are done on animals.
1) Fisetin is Good For Your Brain
Fisetin Encourages New Brain GrowthOut of a number of studied flavanoids, fisetin was found to be the most effective at causing new brain growth (R).One of the reasons fisetin possesses so many brain-boosting effects is because it is able to cross the blood brain barrier (R).
Fisetin Improves MemoryFisetin supplementation increases the strength of long term memory pathways (by modifying ERK signaling and increasing BDNF), so it might be useful for memory disorders like Alzheimer’s (R, R1).
Fisetin Protects Against Brain DegenerationFisetin has been shown to regulate a number of pathways (e.g. antioxidant & mitochondrial function) that are implicated in age-related decline in brain health (R).One mechanism by which fisetin might protect against degenerative brain conditions is by activating certain transcription factors such as Nrf2that increase the cellular levels of glutathione – a key cellular antioxidant that has protective effects on nerve cells (R, R1).Fisetin protects nerve cells from oxidative stress. Oxidative death is one of the many factors associated with cognitive decline, stroke, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease (R).Moreover, Fisetin limits the accumulation of harmful compounds (phosphorylated tau) that accumulate in the brain and cause Alzheimer’s disease (R).Fisetin is a potentially useful supplement for decreasing inflammation in microglia – immune cells that exert neurotoxic effects and are often activated in neurodegenerative conditions (R).
2) Fisetin Has Anti-Inflammatory PropertiesFisetin inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases (enzymes that act on fatty acids), thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory compounds(eicosanoids) and their by-products (R, R).High blood sugar in diabetics can cause inflammation of the blood vessels and lead to serious damage. These inflammatory processes are inhibited by treatment with fisetin (possibly via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway) (R, R1).Fisetin can relieve allergic reactions by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production (IL-4 and IL-13) by Basophils (R).Fisetin was found to be an effective treatment for Eczema in animals as it reduced the presence of inflammatory cytokines, eosinophils, mast cells and T-cells (CD4+ & CD8+) that are typically found in atopic dermatitis skin lesions (R).
3) Fisetin May Prevent and Treat CancerFisetin induces cell death and inhibits the growth of various types of cancers(e.g. melanoma, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer) (R).Fisetin inhibits the pathways responsible for cell growth and survival that are overactive in cancer patients (R).Fisetin inhibits the ability of cancer cells to invade healthy tissues (R).Fisetin inhibits cell proliferation and causes programmed death of chronic myeloid leukemia (white blood cell cancer) cells and possibly other leukemias(R, R1).Treatment with fisetin was able to kill acute monocytic leukemia cells by increasing levels of nitric oxide and Ca(2+) and activating pathways of apoptosis (cell death) (R).Fisetin might exert anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the mTOR pathway (R).Fisetin is such a promising anti-cancer agent because it appears to inhibit and kill cancers without severely affecting the surrounding normal cells – probably because it is able to identify the unique cell-signaling pathways used by cancer cells (R, R1,R2).
4) Fisetin Improves Blood Flow & Lowers Blood PressureFisetin lowers the clumping together (coagulation) of blood cells in mice and, thus, lowers the chance of blockages (R)By inhibiting Ca(2+) signaling, Fisetin helps reverse vasoconstriction caused by the release serotonin and phenylephrine (R).Fisetin was able to reverse bad circulation in mice caused by a high fat diet (R).A rodent study found that Fisetin relaxes drug-induced contraction of blood vessels and, thus, lowers blood pressure. This action occurs regardless of blood vessel function (R).
5) Fisetin May Help Treat DiabetesFisetin lowers the elevation of MG-protein glycation that is associated with diabetes and, therefore, may have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of diabetic complications (R).Diabetic mice fed a diet high in Fisetin stayed diabetic, but the kidney abnormalities normalized (R).Fisetin administration normalized the increased levels of lipid content in blood, liver and kidney in drug-induced diabetic rats (R).In diabetic mice, Fisetin reduced the expected formation of cataracts (R).Fisetin increases HDL and lowered LDL in diabetic rats (R).
6) Fisetin May Extend LifespanA number of studies have found that fisetin activates SIRT-1, a gene that has been repeatedly associated with long lifespan; in fact, it is often referred to as the longevity gene (R, R1, R2).
Dietary supplementation with a strawberry extract (which is said to have the highest levels of fisetin) improved the performance of rats in a rodent model of accelerated aging (R).